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廿四孝熱話文章打印

來自網址: http://www.ohpama.com/?p=183212

閱讀學習 May 10, 2017

【至fun閱讀】讀寫能力,從出生開始培育!

注意在5歲以前提供的正式閱讀教育,尤其是男孩!

你的小孩在發展上是否準備好接受正式的閱讀教育?

閱讀能力取決於大腦將各種來源的信息連接和整合的能力 – 包括視覺及聽覺,語言和概念各個領域。整合能力的高低取決於每個大腦領域、其相關功能的成熟程度以及將各項資訊連接和結合的速度。

有部分孩子在生理或心理上較其他人早熟,但這只代表這少部分人可以在學習上先於他人一步,並不意味著其他的孩子也可以跟上他們的學習步伐。例如,一個孩子要先發育出使用廁所所需的肌肉群,才能成功訓練使用便盆。這道理和大腦的發展一樣。

根據我的觀察,我留意到香港有太多學校,強行要求孩子們過早去學習本應是較大年紀才接觸的事物!當然,這主要是學校因應父母要求的做法。然而,這並不符合兒童的最佳利益,更無助於創造一種愉快而且富成功感的學習環境。

如何幫助你的孩子在五歲之前學習閱讀?

學習閱讀的裝備涉及語音意識,自孩子出生以來你所做的一切事情:朗讀,唱歌,跳舞,鼓掌,都有助於她了解英語的聲音和節奏。並對未來閱讀能力的建立有巨大影響。如果你的母語不是英語,但希望小孩更早學習英語, 可以透過參與遊戲小組(Playgroup),為1-3歲的孩兒中持續地提供一個接觸英語的環境。

由出生到3歲學習成果的例子:
未學爬的嬰兒會在牀上嘗試發出不同聲音,這提供途徑讓他們享受語言的音韻,無意義的單詞遊戲等;聆聽故事;能看到並認出書中的插圖;通過封面分辨不同的書籍;與照顧者分享書藉。

由3到4歲學習成果的例子:
透過分辨不同字母,尤其是他們名字中的字母;辨認母語的印刷品;知道甚麼是故事書;留意到語言中的聲音可被分開和重複(例如Peter,Peter,Pumpkin Eater; Peter Eater);提出問題和評論反映了他們能理解故事的內容;對書本和閱讀表現興趣;學習英語的發音和代表那些聲音的字母,然後開始將聲音合併,形成單詞,例如,你說3個獨立的聲音:/ h / / a / / t /,你的孩子便能將他們合併說「帽子(hat)」。

正式閱讀指導包含語音和其他閱讀技能的系統性教學。孩子們學習將聲音混合一起讀出,然後將聲音分開去拼寫生字。當然,這涉及到詞彙學習和聆聴訓練,讓孩子學習分辨聽到語言中獨立的聲音(Phoneme)。在這個階段,如果孩子能夠寫出全部,或是大部分的字母便是最好。

michael
作者︰Mr.Michael Sullivan@至fun閱讀
專業教師及牛津大學出版社和培生朗文出版社的兒童書籍作者。
電郵聯繫:mt.sullivan@yahoo.com

©2017 MICHAEL SULLIVAN ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

相關文章:【至fun閱讀】男孩也有閱讀天份!還能讀得很好!
 
    把握九歲前黃金期培養閱讀習慣有助學習

Literacy, the ability to read and write, begins at birth!

But be cautious of formal reading instruction before the age of 5, especially for boys!

Is your child developmentally ready for formal reading instruction?

Reading depends on the brain’s ability to connect and integrate various sources of information–specifically, visual with auditory, linguistic, and conceptual areas.

This integration depends on the maturation of each of the individual regions, their association areas, and the speed with which these regions can be connected and integrated.

A few children develop physically and/or mentally earlier than others, but just because some children can do things early, doesn’t mean the rest of the children should be made to do things they can’t.  For example, a child cannot be successfully potty trained until they have physically developed the muscles required to use the toilet properly. It’s the same for the brain.

In my opinion, I see far too many schools in Hong Kong pushing children to do things that used to be taught at a much later age!  Of course, this is mostly because the parents push the schools to do this. This is not in the best interests of the children, or creating an environment where learning is an enjoyable and successful experience.

How can you help your child become literate before the age of five?

Reading Readiness involves Phonological Awareness, which involves all the things you have been doing since your child was born: Reading to her, singing, dancing, clapping, all contribute to her knowledge of the sounds and rhythms of the English language. And has a huge impact on later reading success. If you are not an English speaker, you can provide these opportunities in English playgroups that provide these kinds of activities for children ages 1-3 years of age, over a sustained period of time.

A Few Examples of Birth to 3-Year-Old Accomplishments:

Vocalization play in crib gives way to enjoyment of rhyming language, nonsense word play, etc; Listens to stories; Looks at pictures in books and can label them; Recognizes specific books by the cover; Enters into a book-sharing routine with primary caregivers.

A Few Examples of 3-4 Year Old Accomplishments:

Can identify many alphabet letters, especially the letters in their name; Recognizes print in the local environment; Knows that it is the print that is read in stories; Pays attention to separable and repeating sound in language (e.g. Peter, Peter, Pumpkin Eater; Peter Eater); Questions and comments demonstrate understanding of literal meaning of story being told. Shows an interest in books and reading; Orally learns the sounds of the English language and the letters that represent those sounds, and then can begin to orally blend sounds together to make words, e.g., you say 3 separate sounds: /h/ /a/ /t/, your child blends them together and says “hat”.

Formal reading instruction involves the systematic teaching of Phonics and other reading skills. Children learn to blend sounds together to read, and then segmenting sounds to spell. Of course, this involves learning vocabulary and lots of listening for children to practice hearing the separate sounds (phonemes) of the language. By this stage, it is best if the child can write most, if not all, of the alphabet.  

michael
Mr. Michael Sullivan is a professional teacher and published author of children’s books for Oxford University Press and Pearson Longman.
You can contact him at: mt.sullivan@yahoo.com

©2017 MICHAEL SULLIVAN ALL RIGHTS RESERVED